PGB-12

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PGB-12 uses

PGB-12 consists of Methylcobalamin, Pregabalin.

Pregabalin:


Pharmacological action

PGB-12 is an antiepileptic drugs which active ingredient is an analogue of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

Although the exact mechanism of action of PGB-12 (Pregabalin) still uncertain, it was found that PGB-12 (Pregabalin) binds with an additional subunit (alpha-2-delta protein) of voltage-dependent calcium channels in the CNS, it is assumed that such binding may contribute to the manifestation of its analgesic and anticonvulsant effects.

Pharmacokinetics

Pharmacokinetics of PGB-12 (Pregabalin) in the range of recommended doses is linear, the intra-individual variability is low (< 20%). The pharmacokinetics of PGB-12 (Pregabalin) with repeated use can be predicted on the basis of data reception unit dose. Consequently, there is no need for regular monitoring of the concentration of PGB-12 (Pregabalin). PGB-12 (Pregabalin) is rapidly absorbed after oral administration on an empty stomach. Cmax in plasma is reached after 1 h both at single and repeated application. Bioavailability of PGB-12 (Pregabalin) for oral admistration is or more than 90% and not dose-dependent. For doubled application an equilibrium is reached in 24-48 hours. Absorption of PGB-12 (Pregabalin) is deteriorating under the influence of food. Than Cmax decreased by about 25-30%, and time to Cmax increased to approximately 2.5 hours. However, eating has no clinically significant effect on the overall absorption of PGB-12 (Pregabalin).

Why is PGB-12 prescribed?

Neuropathic pain:

- a treatment of neuropathic pain in adults.

Epilepsy:

- as an subsidiary aid in adults with partial seizures accompanied or not by secondary generalization.

Dosage and administration

PGB-12 is taken orally, regardless of eating in a daily dose of 150 to 600 mg 2 or 3 times.

Treatment of neuropathic pain started with a dose of 150 mg / day. Depending on the achieved effect and tolerability in 3-7 days the dose can be increased to 300 mg / day, and if necessary even after 7 days - up to a maximum dose of 600 mg / day.

Epilepsy treatment begins with a dose of 150 mg / day. Due to the effect and tolerability in 1 week the dose may be increased to 300 mg / day, and a week later - to a maximum dose of 600 mg / day.

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PGB-12 (Pregabalin) side effects, adverse reactions

Hematopoietic system: rarely - neutropenia.

Metabolism: often - increased appetite, weight gain, less often - anorexia, rarely - hypoglycemia, weight loss.

Psyche: often - euphoria, confusion, decreased libido, irritability, less often - depersonalization, anorgasmia, anxiety, depression, agitation, mood lability, increased insomnia, depressed mood, difficulty in finding words, hallucinations, unusual dreams, increased libido, panic attacks, apathy, rarely - disinhibition, elation.

CNS and peripheral nervous system: very often - dizziness, drowsiness; often - ataxia, impaired attention, impaired coordination, memory impairment, tremor, dysarthria, paresthesias; less frequently - cognitive dysfunction, hypesthesia, visual field defects, nystagmus, speech disorder, myoclonic seizures, the weakening of reflexes, dyskinesia, psychomotor hyperactivity and dizziness in the upright position, hypersthesia, loss of taste, burning sensation on the mucous membranes and skin, the intention tremor, stupor, faint; rarely - hypokinesia, parosmiya, chirospasm.

Vision: often - fog before the eyes, double vision; less often - reduced visual acuity, eye pain, asthenopia, as well as dry eyes, swollen eyes, excessive tearing; rarely - flickering sparks before the eyes, eye irritation, mydriasis, ostsillopsiya (subjective feeling vibrations considered subjects), impaired depth perception vision, loss of peripheral vision, strabismus, increasing the brightness of visual perception.

Hearing and vestibular: often - dizziness, rarely - giperakuziya.

Cardio-vascular system: less often - tachycardia, flushing, rarely - decreased blood pressure, cold extremities, increased blood pressure, AV-block I degree, sinus tachycardia, sinus arrhythmia, sinus bradycardia.

Respiratory system: less often - shortness of breath, dryness of the nasal mucosa, rarely - nasopharyngitis, cough, nasal congestion, nosebleeds, rhinitis, snoring, feeling of tightness in the throat.

Digestive system: often - dry mouth, constipation, vomiting, flatulence, less often - increased salivation, gastroesophageal reflux, reduce the sensation of feeling in the mouth, rarely - ascites, dysphagia, pancreatitis.

Dermatological reactions: less often - sweating, papulleznaya rash, rarely - a cold sweat, urticaria.

Musculoskeletal system: less often - twitching of muscles, swelling of joints, muscle cramps, myalgia, arthralgia, back pain, pain in the limbs, stiffness in muscles, rarely - a spasm of neck muscles, neck pain, rhabdomyolysis.

With the urinary system: less often - dysuria, urinary incontinence, rarely - oliguria, renal failure.

Reproductive system: often - erectile dysfunction, less often - delayed ejaculation, sexual dysfunction, rarely - amenorrhea, breast pain, discharge from the breast, dysmenorrhea, hypertrophy of the mammary glands.

From the body as a whole: often - fatigue, peripheral edema and generalized edema, feeling drunk, disturbance of gait, less often - asthenia, fall, thirst, chest tightness, rarely - increased pain with anasarca, fever, chills.

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PGB-12 contraindications

childhood and adolescence to 17 years (currently there is no data of using Lyrica for this type of patients)

hypersensitivity to active substance or to any other component of the drug.

Lyrica should be prescribed with precautions in renal failure in the presence of rare inherited diseases.

Using during pregnancy and breastfeeding

There is no adequate data on the use of PGB-12 in pregnancy.

In experimental animal studies Lyrica has toxic effects on reproductive function.

Due to this the drug Lyrica can be prescribed during pregnancy only if the intended benefits to the mother clearly outweighs the potential risk to the fetus.

Using the drug Lyrica women of childbearing age should use adequate contraceptive methods.

There is no information about PGB-12 (Pregabalin) excretion in breast milk of women.

However, experimental studies have found that it is excreted in breast milk of rats.

Regarding this during treatment by PGB-12 (Pregabalin) is recommended to stop breastfeeding.

Special instructions

The drug should not be prescribed for patients with hereditary intolerance to galactose, deficiency of lactase lapp (lactase deficiency in some peoples of the North), malabsorption of glucose / galactose.

For some patients with diabetes in the case of weight gain during treatment with the drug PGB-12 (Pregabalin) may require adjustment of doses of hypoglycemic drugs.

Treatment with Lyrica accompanied by dizziness and drowsiness, which increase the risk of accidental injury (falls) in older people.

As long as patients do not appreciate the possible effects of the drug, they should proceed with caution.

Information about the possibility of removing other anticonvulsants in the suppression of seizures and whether PGB-12 (Pregabalin) monotherapy with this drug are not enough.

Safety and efficacy of the drug in children under the age of 12 years and adolescents aged 12-17 years have not been established.

The drug Lyrica may cause dizziness and drowsiness and consequently affect your ability to drive and use sophisticated technology. Patients should not drive, use sophisticated technology, or perform other potentially dangerous activities until it is determined by the individual patient's response to the drug.

PGB-12 drug interactions

PGB-12 (Pregabalin) is excreted in the urine mostly unchanged, undergoes minimal metabolism in humans (in the form of metabolites with urine output of less than 2% of dose), did not inhibit the metabolism of other drugs in vitro and is not bound to plasma proteins, so it is unlikely to engage in a pharmacokinetic interaction.

Not found evidence of clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction PGB-12 (Pregabalin) with phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproic acid, lamotrigine, gabapentin, lorazepam, oxycodone or ethanol. It was established that oral hypoglycemic agents, diuretics, insulin, phenobarbital, topiramate and tiagabine has no clinically significant effect on PGB-12 (Pregabalin) clearance.

With use of oral contraceptives containing norethisterone and / or ethinyl estradiol, in conjunction with the equilibrium PGB-12 (Pregabalin) pharmacokinetics of both drugs was unchanged. Repeated oral application of PGB-12 (Pregabalin) with oxycodone, lorazepam or ethanol has no clinically significant effect on respiration. Apparently PGB-12 (Pregabalin) enhances cognitive disorders and motor function caused by oxycodone. PGB-12 (Pregabalin) can increase the effects of ethanol and lorazepam.

PGB-12 in case of emergency / overdose

With an overdose of PGB-12 (Pregabalin) (up to 15 grams) any of adverse reactions were not been reported. Treatment: gastric lavage, supportive therapy, if necessary - hemodialysis.

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PGB-12 pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:

Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.


PGB-12 available forms, composition, doses:

Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.


PGB-12 destination | category:

Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.


PGB-12 Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:

A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.


PGB-12 pharmaceutical companies:

Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.


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References

  1. Dailymed."LYRICA (PREGABALIN) CAPSULE [LAKE ERIE MEDICAL DBA QUALITY CARE PRODUCTS LLC]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  2. Dailymed."PREGABALIN: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  3. "methylcobalamin". https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/co... (accessed August 28, 2018).

Frequently asked Questions

Can i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming PGB-12?

Depending on the reaction of the PGB-12 after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider PGB-12 not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.

Is PGB-12 addictive or habit forming?

Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.

Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.

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Review

sdrugs.com conducted a study on PGB-12, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of PGB-12 consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.

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The information was verified by Dr. Rachana Salvi, MD Pharmacology

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