DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
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70% Lox Heavy (Dextrose) Injection USP is indicated as a caloric component in a parenteral nutrition regimen. 70% Lox Heavy (Dextrose) Injection USP is used with an appropriate protein (nitrogen) source in the prevention of nitrogen loss or in the treatment of negative nitrogen balance in patients where: (1) the alimentary tract cannot or should not be used, (2) gastrointestinal absorption of protein is impaired, or (3) metabolic requirements for protein are substantially increased, as with extensive burns.
The infusion of 70% Lox Heavy (Dextrose) Injection USP is contraindicated in patients having intracranial or intraspinal hemorrhage, in patients who are severely dehydrated, in patients who are anuric, and in patients in hepatic coma.
Solutions containing Lox Heavy (Dextrose) may be contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to corn products.
This injection is for compounding only, not for direct infusion.
Dilute before use to a concentration which will, when administered with an amino acid (nitrogen) source, result in an appropriate calorie to gram of nitrogen ratio and which has an osmolarity consistent with the route of administration.
Unless appropriately diluted, the infusion of hypertonic Lox Heavy (Dextrose) injection into a peripheral vein may result in vein irritation, vein damage, and thrombosis. Strongly hypertonic nutrient solutions should only be administered through an indwelling intravenous catheter with the tip located in a large central vein such as the superior vena cava.
Use of 70% Lox Heavy (Dextrose) Injection USP to prepare parenteral nutritional admixtures may be incompatible with other components, especially calcium and phosphate salts and lipid emulsions. Incompatibility of admixed components can produce precipitates which may cause particulate emboli. Use 70% Lox Heavy (Dextrose) Injection USP only to prepare formulations that are known to be stable: refer to standard texts for further information.
The administration of intravenous solutions can cause fluid and/or solute overload resulting in dilution of serum electrolyte concentrations, overhydration, congested states or pulmonary edema. The risk of dilutional states is inversely proportional to the electrolyte concentration.
WARNING: 70% Lox Heavy (Dextrose) Injection USP contains aluminum that may be toxic. Aluminum may reach toxic levels with prolonged parenteral administration if kidney function is impaired. Premature neonates are particularly at risk because their kidneys are immature, and they require large amounts of calcium and phosphate solutions, which contain aluminum.
Research indicates that patients with impaired kidney function, including premature neonates, who receive parenteral levels of aluminum at greater than 4 to 5 µg/kg/day accumulate aluminum at levels associated with central nervous system and bone toxicity. Tissue loading may occur at even lower rates of administration.
Prolonged infusion of isotonic or hypotonic Lox Heavy (Dextrose) in water may increase the volume of extracellular fluid and cause water intoxication.
Solutions containing Lox Heavy (Dextrose) without electrolytes should not be administered simultaneously with blood through the same infusion set because of the possibility of agglomeration.
Excessive administration of potassium-free Lox Heavy (Dextrose) solutions may result in significant hypokalemia. Serum potassium levels should be maintained and potassium supplemented as required.
In very low birth weight infants, excessive or rapid administration of Lox Heavy (Dextrose) injection may result in increased serum osmolality and possible intracerebral hemorrhage.
This solution should be used with care in patients with hypervolemia, renal insufficiency, urinary tract obstruction, or impending or frank cardiac decompensation.
Solutions containing Lox Heavy should be used with caution in patients with overt or known subclinical diabetes mellitus or carbohydrate intolerance for any reason.
Essential electrolytes, minerals, and vitamins should be supplied as needed.
Hypokalemia may develop during parenteral administration of hypertonic Lox Heavy (Dextrose) solutions. Sufficient amounts of potassium should be added to Lox Heavy (Dextrose) solutions administered to fasting patients with good renal function, especially those on digitalis therapy.
To minimize the risk of possible incompatibilities arising from mixing this solution with other additives that may be prescribed, the final infusate should be inspected for cloudiness or precipitation immediately after mixing, prior to administration, and periodically during administration. See WARNINGS .
Do not use plastic container in series connection.
If administration of 70% Lox Heavy (Dextrose) Injection USP after admixture or dilution is controlled by a pumping device, care must be taken to discontinue pumping action before the container runs dry or air embolism may result. If administration is not controlled by a pumping device, refrain from applying excessive pressure (>300mmHg) causing distortion to the container such as wringing or twisting. Such handling could result in breakage of the container.
This solution is intended for intravenous administration after admixture or dilution using sterile equipment. When using an automated compounding device replace all disposable components as recommended by manufacturer and at least every 24 hours.
Aseptic technique is essential with the use of sterile preparations for compounding nutritional admixtures. Discard container within 4 hours of entering closure.
Administration of hypertonic Lox Heavy (Dextrose) and amino acid solutions via central venous catheter may be associated with complications which can be prevented or minimized by careful attention to all aspects of the procedure. This includes attention to solution preparation, administration and patient monitoring.
It is essential that a carefully prepared protocol, based upon current medical practice, be followed, preferably by an experienced team. The package insert of the protein (nitrogen) source should be consulted for dosage and all precautionary information.
Use only if solution is clear and container and seals are intact.
70% Lox Heavy (Dextrose) Injection USP contains no more than 25 µg/L of aluminum.
Clinical evaluation and periodic laboratory determinations are necessary to monitor changes in fluid balance, electrolyte concentrations, and acid-base balance during prolonged parenteral therapy or whenever the condition of the patient warrants such evaluation. Significant deviations from normal concentrations may require tailoring of the electrolyte pattern, in these or alternative solutions.
Caution must be exercised in the administration of 70% Lox Heavy Injection USP to patients receiving corticosteroids or corticotropin. Some additives may be incompatible. Consult with pharmacist. When introducing additives, use aseptic techniques. Mix thoroughly. Do not store. Dispose of any unused product. See WARNINGS .
Studies with Lox Heavy (Dextrose) Injections USP have not been performed to evaluate carcinogenic potential, mutagenic potential or effects on fertility.
There are no adequate and well controlled studies with Lox Heavy Injections, USP in pregnant women and animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with this drug. Therefore, it is not known whether Lox Heavy (Dextrose) Injections USP can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Lox Heavy (Dextrose) Injections USP should be given during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Intrapartum maternal intravenous infusion of glucose-containing solutions may produce maternal hyperglycemia with subsequent fetal hyperglycemia and fetal metabolic acidosis. Fetal hyperglycemia can result in increased fetal insulin levels which may result in neonatal hypoglycemia following delivery. Consider the potential risks and benefits for each specific patient before administering Lox Heavy (Dextrose) Injection, USP.
It is not known if this drug is present in human milk. Because many drugs are present in human milk, caution should be exercised when Lox Heavy Injections USP are administered to a nursing woman.
The use of Lox Heavy (Dextrose) in pediatric patients is based on clinical practice (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). Because of their hypertonicity, 70% Lox Heavy (Dextrose) Injections must be diluted prior to administration.
Newborns – especially those born premature and with low birth weight - are at increased risk of developing hypo- or hyperglycemia and therefore need close monitoring during treatment with intravenous glucose solutions to ensure adequate glycemic control in order to avoid potential long term adverse effects. Hypoglycemia in the newborn can cause prolonged seizures, coma and brain damage. Hyperglycemia has been associated with intraventricular hemorrhage, late onset bacterial and fungal infection, retinopathy of prematurity, necrotizing enterocolitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, prolonged length of hospital stay, and death.
An evaluation of literature revealed no clinical experience identifying differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
See WARNINGS .
Reactions which may occur because of the solution or the technique of administration include febrile response, infection at the site of injection, venous thrombosis or phlebitis extending from the site of injection, extravasation and hypervolemia. Incompatibility of admixed components can produce precipitates which may cause particulate emboli.
Hyperosmolar syndrome, resulting from excessively rapid administration of concentrated Lox Heavy (Dextrose) may cause hypovolemia, dehydration, mental confusion and/or loss of consciousness. Too rapid infusion of hypertonic solutions may cause local pain and venous irritation. Rate of administration should be adjusted according to tolerance. Use of the largest peripheral vein and a small bore needle is recommended. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION .)
Hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis and chills.
If an adverse reaction does occur, discontinue the infusion, evaluate the patient, institute appropriate therapeutic countermeasures, and save the remainder of the fluid for examination if deemed necessary.
In the event of a fluid or solute overload during parenteral therapy, reevaluate the patient’s condition and institute appropriate corrective treatment.
This solution is for intravenous use only after admixture or dilution.
70% Lox Heavy Injection USP is designed for use with automated compounding devices for preparing intravenous nutritional admixtures or for the filling of empty sterile syringes. Dosages will be in accordance with the recommendation of the prescribing physician. 70% Lox Heavy (Dextrose) Injection USP is not intended for direct infusion. Admixtures should be made by, or under the direction of, a pharmacist using strict aseptic technique under a laminar flow hood. Compounded admixtures may be stored under refrigeration for up to 24 hours. Administration of admixtures should be completed within 24 hours after removal from refrigeration.
Dosage is to be directed by a physician and is dependent upon age, weight, clinical condition of the patient and laboratory determinations. Frequent laboratory determinations and clinical evaluation are essential to monitor changes in blood glucose and electrolyte concentrations, and fluid and electrolyte balance during prolonged parenteral therapy.
Fluid administration should be based on calculated maintenance or replacement fluid requirements for each patient.
The dosage selection and constant infusion rate of intravenous Lox Heavy (Dextrose) must be selected with caution in pediatric patients, particularly neonates and low birth weight infants, because of the increased risk of hyperglycemia/hypoglycemia. Frequent monitoring of serum glucose concentrations is required when Lox Heavy (Dextrose) is prescribed to pediatric patients, particularly neonates and low birth weight infants. The infusion rate and volume depends on the age, weight, clinical and metabolic conditions of the patient, concomitant therapy and should be determined by the consulting physician experienced in pediatric intravenous fluid therapy.
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration or admixture and final infusate should be inspected for cloudiness or precipitation immediately after mixing, prior to administration, and periodically during administration, whenever solution and container permit. Use of a final filter is recommended during administration of all parenteral solutions where possible.
70% Lox Heavy (Dextrose) Injection USP in the Pharmacy Bulk Package is intended for use in the preparation of sterile, intravenous admixtures.
Refer to standard texts and guidelines on the preparation of parenteral nutritional admixtures.
When compounding admixtures, use aseptic technique. Mix thoroughly.
Do not store any unused portion of 70% Lox Heavy (Dextrose) Injection USP.
PREPARATION FOR ADMIXING
Note: Important Admixing Information
70% Lox Heavy (Dextrose) Injection USP is supplied in 2000 mL Pharmacy Bulk Package containers packaged 4 per case.
NDC REF SIZE
0264-7387-50 S8705 2000 mL
Exposure of pharmaceutical products to heat should be minimized. Avoid excessive heat. Protect from freezing. It is recommended that the product be stored at room temperature (25°C); however, brief exposure up to 40°C does not adversely affect the product.
Initiated: February 2015
B. Braun Medical Inc.
Bethlehem, PA 18018-3524 USA
Lox Heavy is an antiarrhythmic agent of class IB, local anesthetic, a derivative of acetanilide. This medication has membrane stabilizing activity. Lox Heavy (Lidocaine) causes a blockade of sodium channels of excitable membranes of neurons and the membrane of cardiomyocytes.
This drug reduces the duration of the action potential and effective refractory period in Purkinje fibers, inhibits their automaticity. In this case, Lox Heavy (Lidocaine) inhibits electrical activity in depolarized, arrhythmogenic sites, but minimally affects the electrical activity of normal tissues. When used in the medium therapeutic doses virtually no effect on myocardial contractility and slows AV-conduction. When applied as an antiarrhythmic agent in IV injection it begin to act in 45-90 seconds, the duration of action is 10-20 minutes; for IM administration the onset of action is in 5-15 minutes, the duration - 60-90 minutes.
Lox Heavy (Lidocaine) causes all kinds of local anesthesia: a terminal, infiltration and wires.
After IM administration absorption of Lox Heavy (Lidocaine) is almost complete. The distribution is rapid, Vd is about 1 L/kg (in patients with heart failure it is below). The protein binding depends on the concentration of the active substance in the plasma and is 60-80%. Lox Heavy (Lidocaine) metabolized mainly in the liver with the formation of active metabolites, that may contribute to the manifestation of the therapeutic and toxic effects, especially after the infusion for 24 hours or more.
T1/2 tends to be two phases with the phase distribution of 9.7 min. In general T1/2 depends on the dose is 1-2 hours and can grow up to 3 hours or more during prolonged intravenous infusion (over 24 h). Lox Heavy (Lidocaine) excreted by the kidneys as metabolites, 10% unchanged.
In cardiological practice: treatment and prevention of ventricular arrhythmias (extrasystoles, tachycardia, atrial flutter, atrial fibrillation), including in acute myocardial infarction, implantation of artificial pacemaker in the glycoside intoxication, narcosis.
Anaesthesia: terminal, infiltration, conduction, spinal (epidural) anesthesia in surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, urology, ophthalmology, dentistry, otolaryngology, blockade of peripheral nerves and ganglion.
As an anti-arrhythmic medicine for adult with the introduction of a loading dose by IV - 1-2 mg / kg over 3-4 minutes; the average single dose is 80 mg. Then immediately transferred to drip infusion at a rate of 20-55 mg / kg / min. Drip infusion can be carried out within 24-36 hours. If necessary, against the background of drop infusions can repeat IV jet injection of Lox Heavy 40 mg after 10 minutes after the first loading dose.
IM is introduced to 2-4 mg / kg, if necessary, repeated administration is possible through 60-90 minutes.
For children with IV injection loading dose - 1 mg / kg, if necessary, it may be repeated administration in 5 min.
For continuous intravenous infusion (usually following the introduction of a loading dose) - 20-30 mg / kg / min.
For use in surgical and obstetric practice, dentistry, ENT practice, dosing regimen set individually, depending on the evidence, the clinical situation and used the dosage form.
Maximum dose: for adults for IV injections the loading dose is 100 mg, in a subsequent drop infusion it is 2 mg / min; when IM administration - 300 mg (about 4.5 mg / kg) for 1 h.
For children in case of reintroduction the loading dose every 5 minutes, the total dose is 3 mg / kg; by continuous intravenous infusion (usually following the introduction of a loading dose) - 50 mg / kg / min.
CNS and peripheral nervous system: dizziness, headache, weakness, motor restlessness, nystagmus, loss of consciousness, drowsiness, visual and auditory disturbances, tremor, trismus, seizures (risk of their development against the backdrop of increasing hypercapnia and acidosis), a syndrome of "cauda equina" (paralysis of the legs, paresthesia), paralysis of respiratory muscles, respiratory arrest, a block of motor and sensitive, respiratory paralysis (usually develops in the subarachnoid anesthesia), numb tongue (when used in dentistry).
Cardiovascular system: increased or decreased blood pressure, tachycardia if used with a vasoconstrictor, peripheral vasodilatation, collapse, chest pain.
Digestive system: nausea, vomiting, involuntary defecation.
Allergic reactions: skin rash, hives (on skin and mucous membranes), itching, angioedema, anaphylactic shock.
Local reactions: during spinal anesthesia - a pain in the back, with an epidural anesthesia - a random hit in the subarachnoid space, when applied topically in urology - urethritis.
Other: incontinent, methemoglobinemia, persistent anesthesia, decreased libido and / or potency, respiratory depression, until the stop, hypothermia; during anesthesia in dentistry: numbness and paresthesia of the lips and tongue, the lengthening of anesthesia.
Severe bleeding, shock, hypotension, infection of the proposed injection site, marked bradycardia, cardiogenic shock, severe forms of chronic heart failure, SSS in elderly patients, AV-block II and III degree (except in cases when the probe was introduced to stimulate the ventricles), severe liver function abnormalities.
For subarachnoid anesthesia - complete heart block, bleeding, hypotension, shock, infection of the venue lumbar puncture, septicemia.
Increased sensitivity to Lox Heavy (Lidocaine) and other amide type local anesthetics.
During pregnancy and lactation be used only for health reasons. Lox Heavy is excreted in breast milk.
In obstetric practice used with caution in paracervical for violations of fetal development, placental insufficiency, prematurity, postmaturity, gestosis.
Category effects on the fetus by FDA - B.
Use with caution in liver disease and kidney failure, hypovolemia, severe heart failure, in violation of the contractility of genetic susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia. In children, debilitated patients, elderly patients are required in dosage adjustment in accordance with the age and physical status. When injected into vascularized tissue it is recommended an aspiration test.
Beta-blockers increase the risk of bradycardia and hypotension. Norepinephrine and beta-blockers by reducing hepatic blood flow decrease (increased toxicity), isadrine and glucagon - increase the clearance of Lox Heavy (Lidocaine). Cimetidine increases the plasma concentration of Lox Heavy (Lidocaine) (displaces from its association with proteins and slows inactivation in the liver). Barbiturates causing induction of microsomal enzymes stimulate the degradation of Lox Heavy (Lidocaine) and reduce its activity. Anticonvulsants (hydantoin derivatives) accelerate the biotransformation in the liver (decreased concentration in the blood), for IV injections it may increases cardiodepressive action of Lox Heavy (Lidocaine). Antiarrhythmics (amiodarone, verapamil, quinidine, aymalin) potentiate cardiac depression. Combination with novocainamide may cause CNS excitement and hallucinations. Lox Heavy (Lidocaine) strengthens the inhibitory effect of anesthesia (hexobarbital, thiopental sodium), hypnotics and sedatives on the respiratory center, weakens the cardiac effects of digitoxin, enhances muscle relaxation caused by drugs curare like (possible paralysis of respiratory muscles). MAO inhibitors prolong local anesthesia.
Symptoms: psychomotor agitation, dizziness, weakness, decreased blood pressure, tremors, tonic-clonic convulsions, coma, collapse, possible AV blockade, CNS depression, respiratory arrest.
Treatment: discontinuation, pulmonary ventilation, oxygen therapy, anticonvulsants, vasoconstrictors (norepinephrine, mezaton), when bradycardia - anticholinergics (atropine). It is possible to carry out intubation, mechanical ventilation, resuscitation. Dialysis is ineffective.
Depending on the reaction of the Lox Heavy after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Lox Heavy not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Lox Heavy addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
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The information was verified by Dr. Rachana Salvi, MD Pharmacology