Flumusa (Alprazolam) is an anxiolytic drug (tranquilizer), a derivative of triazolo-benzodiazepine. This medication has anxiolytic, sedative, hypnotic, anticonvulsant, central muscle relaxant effect. The mechanism of action is to enhance the inhibitory effect of endogenous GABA in the CNS by increasing the sensitivity of the GABA-receptor mediator as a result of stimulation of benzodiazepine receptors located in the allosteric center of postsynaptic GABA-receptor activating ascending reticular formation of brain stem neurons and the lateral horns of the spinal cord; reduces the excitability of the subcortical brain structures (the limbic system, thalamus, hypothalamus), inhibits the polysynaptic spinal reflexes.
Pronounced anxiolytic activity (reduction of emotional tension, easing anxiety, fear, anxiety) is combined with moderate soporific effect; it shortens the period of sleep, increases sleep duration and reduces the number of nighttime awakenings. The mechanism of hypnotic action is inhibition of cell reticular formation of the brain.
After oral administration Flumusa (Alprazolam) is rapidly and completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Cmax plasma levels achieved within 1-2 hours. Binding to plasma proteins is 80%. This drud metabolized in the liver. T1/2 is an average of 12-15 hours. Flumusa (Alprazolam) and its metabolites are mainly excreted by kidneys.panic disorder in combination and without symptoms of phobias
Dosage and administration
Individual. It is recommended to use the minimum effective dose of Flumusa (Alprazolam) Sandoz. The dose is corrected in the treatment process depending on the achieved effect and tolerability. If necessary, increase the dose should be increased gradually, first in the evening and then in the daytime reception.
The initial dose of Flumusa (Alprazolam) is 250-500 mg 3 times / day, if necessary, it gradually increases to 4.5 mg / day.
For elderly or debilitated patients the initial dose is 250 mg 2-3 / day, maintenance doses - 500-750 mg / day, if necessary, taking into account the tolerance dose can be increased.
Cancellation or reduction of the dose of Flumusa (Alprazolam) should be done gradually by reducing the daily dose of no more than 500 mcg every 3 days; sometimes can needed even more slowly cancelling.
Flumusa (Alprazolam) side effects, adverse reactions
CNS: at the beginning of treatment (especially in elderly patients) drowsiness, fatigue, dizziness, decreased ability to concentrate, ataxia, disorientation, unsteady gait, slowing of mental and motor responses; rare - headache, euphoria, depression, tremors, memory loss, impaired coordination of movements, depressed mood, confusion, extrapyramidal dystonic reactions (involuntary movements, including for eyes), weakness, myasthenia gravis, dysarthria; in some cases - paradoxical reactions (aggressive flare, confusion, psychomotor agitation, fear, suicidal tendencies, muscle spasms, hallucinations, agitation, irritability, anxiety, insomnia).
Digestive system: possible dry mouth or excessive salivation, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, decreased appetite, constipation or diarrhea, abnormal liver function, elevated liver transaminases and alkaline phosphatase, jaundice.
Hematopoietic system: possible leukopenia, neutropenia, agranulocytosis (chills, pyrexia, sore throat, extreme tiredness or weakness), anemia, thrombocytopenia.
Urinary tract: possible urinary incontinence, urinary retention, renal failure, decreased or increased libido, dysmenorrhea.
Endocrine system: possible change in body weight, disturbances in libido, menstrual irregularities.
Cardiovascular system: possible decrease in blood pressure, tachycardia.
Allergic reactions: possible skin rash, itching.
Coma, shock, myasthenia gravis, angle-closure glaucoma (acute attack or predisposition), acute alcohol poisoning (with the weakening of the vital functions), narcotic analgesics, hypnotics and psychotropic drugs, chronic obstructive airways disease with incipient respiratory failure, acute respiratory failure, severe depression (suicidal tendencies may occur), pregnancy (especially the I trimester), lactation, childhood and adolescence to 18 years, increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines.
Using during pregnancy and breastfeeding
Flumusa (Alprazolam) has a toxic effect on the fetus and increases the risk of birth defects when used in the I trimester of pregnancy. The constant use during pregnancy can cause physical dependence with the development of withdrawal syndrome in the newborn. Reception at therapeutic doses in the later stages of pregnancy can cause neonatal CNS depression. Using of Flumusa (Alprazolam) immediately before birth or during labor can cause neonatal respiratory depression, decreased muscle tone, hypotension, hypothermia and a weak act of sucking (sucking flaccid syndrome baby).
It is possible to excretion of the benzodiazepines in breast milk that can cause drowsiness in the newborn and hinder feeding.
In experimental studies have been shown that Flumusa (Alprazolam) and its metabolites are excreted in breast milk.
Keep in mind that anxiety or conditions related to everyday stress usually does not require treatment with anxiolytics.
If you experience paradoxical reactions then stop taking the drug. During the period of treatment is unacceptable to use of alcoholic drinks. With caution use Flumusa (Alprazolam) for drivers of vehicles and people whose profession is associated with increased concentration.
Flumusa (Alprazolam) drug interactions
The simultaneous use of Flumusa (Alprazolam) with psychotropic, anticonvulsant medications and ethanol is observed enhancement inhibitory action Flumusa (Alprazolam) on the CNS.
The simultaneous use with blockers of histamine H2-receptor reduce the clearance of Flumusa (Alprazolam) and increase the inhibitory effect of Flumusa (Alprazolam) on the CNS; macrolide antibiotics reduce the clearance of alprazolam.
The simultaneous use with hormonal oral contraceptives increased T1/2 of alprazolam.
Simultaneous administration of Flumusa (Alprazolam) with dextropropoxyphene observed a more pronounced CNS depression than in combination with other benzodiazepines, as may increase the concentration of Flumusa (Alprazolam) in blood plasma.
Simultaneous treatment with digoxin increases the risk of intoxication by cardiac glycosides.
Flumusa (Alprazolam) increases the concentration of imipramine in plasma.
Simultaneous administration with itraconazole, ketoconazole increases the effects of alprazolam.
Simultaneous administration with paroxetine may increases the effects of Flumusa (Alprazolam) due to the inhibition of its metabolism.
Fluvoxamine increases the concentration of Flumusa (Alprazolam) in plasma and risk of its side effects.
Simultaneous administration of Flumusa (Alprazolam) with fluoxetine may increase the concentration of Flumusa (Alprazolam) in plasma by decreasing its metabolism and clearance under the influence of fluoxetine which is accompanied by psychomotor disorders.
It can not be exclude the possibility of strengthening effect of Flumusa (Alprazolam) for simultaneous administration with erythromycin.
Flumusa (Alprazolam) in case of emergency / overdose
Symptoms: Varying degrees of CNS oppression (from sleepiness to coma) - drowsiness, confusion; in more severe cases (especially in patients receiving other drugs depressing the central nervous system or alcohol) - ataxia, decreased reflexes, hypotension, coma.
Treatment: induction of vomiting, gastric lavage, symptomatic therapy, monitor vital signs. In severe hypotension prescribed an injection of norepinephrine. Specific antidote is benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil (administration only in a hospital).
Flumusa (Fluoxetine Hydrochloride) is an antidepressant, propylamine derivative. The mechanism of action is associated with selective blockade of the inverse of neuronal serotonin reuptake in the CNS. Flumusa (Fluoxetine Hydrochloride) is a weak antagonist of choline, adrenergic and histamine receptors. Unlike most antidepressants Flumusa (Fluoxetine Hydrochloride) apparently does not cause reduction of functional activity of postsynaptic beta-adrenergic receptors. This medication improves mood, reduces anxiety and stress, eliminates dysphoria. Flumusa (Fluoxetine Hydrochloride) does not cause sedation. When you receive a medium therapeutic doses of this drug it does not affect the function of cardiovascular and other systems.
Flumusa (Fluoxetine Hydrochloride) absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. This medication is poorly metabolized in the "first pass" through the liver. The ingestion did not affect the extent of absorption, although it may slow its speed. Cmax in plasma is reached after 6-8 hours. Css in plasma is reached only after a continuous reception in a few weeks. The protein binding is 94.5%. Flumusa (Fluoxetine Hydrochloride) easily penetrates through the BBB.
Flumusa (Fluoxetine Hydrochloride) metabolized in the liver by demethylation to form the main active metabolite norfluoxetine.
T1/2 of Flumusa (Fluoxetine Hydrochloride) is 2-3 days, norfluoxetine - 7-9 days.
Why is Flumusa (Fluoxetine Hydrochloride) prescribed?
Depressions of various origins, obsessive-compulsive disorders, bulimic neurosis.
Dosage and administration
The initial dose of Flumusa (Fluoxetine Hydrochloride) is 20 mg 1 time / day in the morning, if necessary, the dose may be increased in 3-4 weeks. The frequency of reception is 2-3 times / day.
The maximum oral daily dose for adults is 80 mg.
Flumusa (Fluoxetine Hydrochloride) side effects, adverse reactions
CNS: anxiety, tremors, nervousness, drowsiness, headache, sleep disturbances.
Digestive system: diarrhea, nausea.
Metabolism: increased sweating, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia (especially in elderly patients and when hypovolemia).
Reproductive system: decreased libido.
Allergic reactions: skin rash, itching.
Other: pain in joints and muscles, shortness of breath, increased body temperature.
Flumusa (Fluoxetine Hydrochloride) contraindications
Glaucoma, bladder atony, severe renal dysfunction, benign prostatic hyperplasia, co-administration of MAO inhibitors, convulsions of various origins, epilepsy, pregnancy, lactation, hypersensitivity to fluoxetine.
Using during pregnancy and breastfeeding
Flumusa (Fluoxetine Hydrochloride) is contraindicated during pregnancy and lactation.
Flumusa (Fluoxetine Hydrochloride) should be used with caution in patients with impaired liver and kidney, with a history of epileptic seizures, cardio-vascular diseases.
Patients with diabetes may change in blood glucose levels that require correction dosing regimen of hypoglycemic drugs. When applied in debilitated patients with Flumusa (Fluoxetine Hydrochloride) increases the risk of epileptic seizures.
With the simultaneous application of Flumusa (Fluoxetine Hydrochloride) and electroconvulsive therapy may develop prolonged seizures.
Flumusa (Fluoxetine Hydrochloride) can be applied not earlier than 14 days after discontinuation of MAO inhibitors. The period after the abolition of Flumusa (Fluoxetine Hydrochloride) before therapy MAO inhibitors should not be less than 5 weeks.
Elderly patients need correction of dosing regimen.
Safety of Flumusa (Fluoxetine Hydrochloride) in children has not been established.
During the period of treatment it needed to avoid use alcohol.
During the period of treatment should refrain from potentially hazardous activities requiring increased attention and rapid psychomotor reactions.
Flumusa (Fluoxetine Hydrochloride) drug interactions
Simultaneous administration of Flumusa (Fluoxetine Hydrochloride) with: