Flumusa (Alprazolam) is an anxiolytic drug (tranquilizer), a derivative of triazolo-benzodiazepine. This medication has anxiolytic, sedative, hypnotic, anticonvulsant, central muscle relaxant effect. The mechanism of action is to enhance the inhibitory effect of endogenous GABA in the CNS by increasing the sensitivity of the GABA-receptor mediator as a result of stimulation of benzodiazepine receptors located in the allosteric center of postsynaptic GABA-receptor activating ascending reticular formation of brain stem neurons and the lateral horns of the spinal cord; reduces the excitability of the subcortical brain structures (the limbic system, thalamus, hypothalamus), inhibits the polysynaptic spinal reflexes.
Pronounced anxiolytic activity (reduction of emotional tension, easing anxiety, fear, anxiety) is combined with moderate soporific effect; it shortens the period of sleep, increases sleep duration and reduces the number of nighttime awakenings. The mechanism of hypnotic action is inhibition of cell reticular formation of the brain.
After oral administration Flumusa (Alprazolam) is rapidly and completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Cmax plasma levels achieved within 1-2 hours. Binding to plasma proteins is 80%. This drud metabolized in the liver. T1/2 is an average of 12-15 hours. Flumusa (Alprazolam) and its metabolites are mainly excreted by kidneys.panic disorder in combination and without symptoms of phobias
Dosage and administration
Individual. It is recommended to use the minimum effective dose of Flumusa (Alprazolam) Sandoz. The dose is corrected in the treatment process depending on the achieved effect and tolerability. If necessary, increase the dose should be increased gradually, first in the evening and then in the daytime reception.
The initial dose of Flumusa (Alprazolam) is 250-500 mg 3 times / day, if necessary, it gradually increases to 4.5 mg / day.
For elderly or debilitated patients the initial dose is 250 mg 2-3 / day, maintenance doses - 500-750 mg / day, if necessary, taking into account the tolerance dose can be increased.
Cancellation or reduction of the dose of Flumusa (Alprazolam) should be done gradually by reducing the daily dose of no more than 500 mcg every 3 days; sometimes can needed even more slowly cancelling.
Flumusa (Alprazolam) side effects, adverse reactions
CNS: at the beginning of treatment (especially in elderly patients) drowsiness, fatigue, dizziness, decreased ability to concentrate, ataxia, disorientation, unsteady gait, slowing of mental and motor responses; rare - headache, euphoria, depression, tremors, memory loss, impaired coordination of movements, depressed mood, confusion, extrapyramidal dystonic reactions (involuntary movements, including for eyes), weakness, myasthenia gravis, dysarthria; in some cases - paradoxical reactions (aggressive flare, confusion, psychomotor agitation, fear, suicidal tendencies, muscle spasms, hallucinations, agitation, irritability, anxiety, insomnia).
Digestive system: possible dry mouth or excessive salivation, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, decreased appetite, constipation or diarrhea, abnormal liver function, elevated liver transaminases and alkaline phosphatase, jaundice.
Hematopoietic system: possible leukopenia, neutropenia, agranulocytosis (chills, pyrexia, sore throat, extreme tiredness or weakness), anemia, thrombocytopenia.
Urinary tract: possible urinary incontinence, urinary retention, renal failure, decreased or increased libido, dysmenorrhea.
Endocrine system: possible change in body weight, disturbances in libido, menstrual irregularities.
Cardiovascular system: possible decrease in blood pressure, tachycardia.
Allergic reactions: possible skin rash, itching.
Coma, shock, myasthenia gravis, angle-closure glaucoma (acute attack or predisposition), acute alcohol poisoning (with the weakening of the vital functions), narcotic analgesics, hypnotics and psychotropic drugs, chronic obstructive airways disease with incipient respiratory failure, acute respiratory failure, severe depression (suicidal tendencies may occur), pregnancy (especially the I trimester), lactation, childhood and adolescence to 18 years, increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines.
Using during pregnancy and breastfeeding
Flumusa (Alprazolam) has a toxic effect on the fetus and increases the risk of birth defects when used in the I trimester of pregnancy. The constant use during pregnancy can cause physical dependence with the development of withdrawal syndrome in the newborn. Reception at therapeutic doses in the later stages of pregnancy can cause neonatal CNS depression. Using of Flumusa (Alprazolam) immediately before birth or during labor can cause neonatal respiratory depression, decreased muscle tone, hypotension, hypothermia and a weak act of sucking (sucking flaccid syndrome baby).
It is possible to excretion of the benzodiazepines in breast milk that can cause drowsiness in the newborn and hinder feeding.
In experimental studies have been shown that Flumusa (Alprazolam) and its metabolites are excreted in breast milk.
Keep in mind that anxiety or conditions related to everyday stress usually does not require treatment with anxiolytics.
If you experience paradoxical reactions then stop taking the drug. During the period of treatment is unacceptable to use of alcoholic drinks. With caution use Flumusa (Alprazolam) for drivers of vehicles and people whose profession is associated with increased concentration.
Flumusa (Alprazolam) drug interactions
The simultaneous use of Flumusa (Alprazolam) with psychotropic, anticonvulsant medications and ethanol is observed enhancement inhibitory action Flumusa (Alprazolam) on the CNS.
The simultaneous use with blockers of histamine H2-receptor reduce the clearance of Flumusa (Alprazolam) and increase the inhibitory effect of Flumusa (Alprazolam) on the CNS; macrolide antibiotics reduce the clearance of alprazolam.
The simultaneous use with hormonal oral contraceptives increased T1/2 of alprazolam.
Simultaneous administration of Flumusa (Alprazolam) with dextropropoxyphene observed a more pronounced CNS depression than in combination with other benzodiazepines, as may increase the concentration of Flumusa (Alprazolam) in blood plasma.
Simultaneous treatment with digoxin increases the risk of intoxication by cardiac glycosides.
Flumusa (Alprazolam) increases the concentration of imipramine in plasma.
Simultaneous administration with itraconazole, ketoconazole increases the effects of alprazolam.
Simultaneous administration with paroxetine may increases the effects of Flumusa (Alprazolam) due to the inhibition of its metabolism.
Fluvoxamine increases the concentration of Flumusa (Alprazolam) in plasma and risk of its side effects.
Simultaneous administration of Flumusa (Alprazolam) with fluoxetine may increase the concentration of Flumusa (Alprazolam) in plasma by decreasing its metabolism and clearance under the influence of fluoxetine which is accompanied by psychomotor disorders.
It can not be exclude the possibility of strengthening effect of Flumusa (Alprazolam) for simultaneous administration with erythromycin.
Flumusa (Alprazolam) in case of emergency / overdose
Symptoms: Varying degrees of CNS oppression (from sleepiness to coma) - drowsiness, confusion; in more severe cases (especially in patients receiving other drugs depressing the central nervous system or alcohol) - ataxia, decreased reflexes, hypotension, coma.
Treatment: induction of vomiting, gastric lavage, symptomatic therapy, monitor vital signs. In severe hypotension prescribed an injection of norepinephrine. Specific antidote is benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil (administration only in a hospital).
Fluoxetine Hydrochloride - Flumusa (Fluoxetine Hydrochloride) hydrochloride is the first agent of the class of antidepressants known as selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Despite distinct structural differences between compounds in this class, SSRIs possess similar pharmacological activity. As with other antidepressant agents, several weeks of therapy may be required before a clinical effect is seen. SSRIs are potent inhibitors of neuronal serotonin reuptake. They have little to no effect on norepinephrine or dopamine reuptake and do not antagonize α- or β-adrenergic, dopamine D2 or histamine H1 receptors. During acute use, SSRIs block serotonin reuptake and increase serotonin stimulation of somatodendritic 5-HT1A and terminal autoreceptors. Chronic use leads to desensitization of somatodendritic 5-HT1A and terminal autoreceptors. The overall clinical effect of increased mood and decreased anxiety is thought to be due to adaptive changes in neuronal function that leads to enhanced serotonergic neurotransmission. Side effects include dry mouth, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, sexual dysfunction and headache. Side effects generally occur within the first two weeks of therapy and are usually less severe and frequent than those observed with tricyclic antidepressants. Flouxetine may be used to treat major depressive disorder (MDD), moderate to severe bulimia nervosa, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, and in combination with olanzapine for treatment-resistant or bipolar I depression. Flumusa (Fluoxetine Hydrochloride) is the most anorexic and stimulating SSRI.
Indication: Labeled indication include: major depressive disorder (MDD), moderate to severe bulimia nervosa, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, and combination treatment with olanzapine for treatment-resistant or bipolar I depression. Unlabeled indications include: selective mutism, mild dementia-associated agitation in nonpsychotic patients, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), social anxiety disorder, chronic neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, and Raynaud's phenomenon.
Flumusa (Fluoxetine Hydrochloride), an antidepressant agent belonging to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), is used to treat depression, bulimia nervosa, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, panic disorder and post-traumatic stress. According to the amines hypothesis, a functional decrease in the activity of amines, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, would result in depression; a functional increase of the activity of these amines would result in mood elevation. Fluoxetine's effects are thought to be associated with the inhibition of 5HT receptor, which leads to an increase of serotonin level.